The Main Parts Of A 3D Printer And How They Work

by Randall
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3D printers are machines used to make models by additive technology. These products can be bought while fully assembled or in parts. Some people prefer to buy 3D printer parts and make DIY 3D printers. Click here ( for some of the best 3D printers. This post looks into the primary 3D printer components.

Components of a 3D printer

A 3D printer is made up of several parts which work together to make the printing process easy. The following is a list of the primary parts of the 3D printer:

1. The mainboard

Also known as the controller board or motherboard, the mainboard is known as the brain of the 3D printer. It is in charge of all the core operations of the 3D printer. This includes directing the motion components. The mainboard gets its commands from the computer and interprets inputs from sensors. Arguably, this is the most important component of a 3D printer, and its performance affects the entire 3D printing process. Therefore, if the mainboard is constructed from poor materials or is flawed in any way, the machine cannot be used to make high-end parts.

2. The frame

This component is referred to as the chassis of the printer. Its role is to hold together all the other 3D printer components. It is also directly in charge of stability and plays a significant role in the durability of the 3D printer. Most modern 3D printer frames are made from acrylic or metal. However, traditionally, they were made from wood. The material is usually chosen with the durability of the printer and the safety of its components in mind. Note that there are various forms of 3D printer frames. The primary forms are:

  • Enclosed frames- they are usually covered entirely. They are designed to protect the rest of the 3D printer components from elements like dust and particles. They also help keep curious fingers away.
  • Semi-enclosed frame- they usually feature covered sides and are open at the front and top.

3. Filament

This is referred to the material used to make the object. The filament is usually fed onto the 3D printer, melted, or turned into powder before extruding onto the building table. There are various types of 3D printing filament on the market. The type of filament used is usually matched with the 3D printer. Also, the filament is usually chosen based on the type of product being manufactured.

4. The print bed

This is the part where the models are created. It is the part where the extruded material is deposited, and the product is created.

5. The motion controllers

These are a group of components that receive instructions from the mainboard about the movements they need to make and implement them. The components in this category are the belts, stepper motors, and thread roads (usually connected to the stepper motors). The end stop is also part of the motion controllers.


A 3d printer is also made up of a power supply unit. This component supplies power to the 3D printer to allow for smooth operation. It is usually mounted on the frame or separately on another controller box. Most 3D printer manufacturers have the PSU mounted because of the compact look provided.

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